nawyveti biologiis doqtor, nodar mindiaSvilis wignidan 
“organuli soflis meurneoba”

 

organul miwaTmoqmedebaSi memcenareobis zogadi principebi


 

Eekologiuri meurneobis mimdevari fermeris gankargulebaSi ararsebobs rigi damxmare saSualebani. Aamitomac sawarmoo procesze qimiuri zemoqmedebis meTodebs igi cvlis racionaluri da biologiuri meTodebiT. sxvadasxva kulturebis gaSenebisas warmateba mniSvnelovanwilad damokidebulia ekologiur meurneobebSi memcenareobis Semdegi ZiriTadi principebis dacisa da Tavad ekologiuri meurneobebis specifikisgan:

· naTesebi, gansakuTrebiT meurneobis konversiis periodSi, imyofeba uaryofiTi faqtorebis mniSvnelovani zegavlenis qveS. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia sarevelebi, romlebTanac brZola rTuli da xangrZlivi procesia;

· niadagidan an sasuqidan sakvebi nivTierebebis, gansakuTrebiT azotis gamoTavisuflebis procesi nelia da naklebad regulirebadi;

· memcenareobis RonisZiebebi Zlieraa damokidebuli amindis pirobebsa da biologiuri faqtorebis zemoqmedebaze;

· mcenareuli kulturebis struqtura ganapirobebs sawarmos ekologiur da ekonomikur stabilurobas;

· samyurebis da macvlovnebis CarTva TeslbrunvebSi zrdis niadagis mosavlianobas, neSompalas Semcvelobas, aumjobesebs mis stuqturas;

· Sualeduri kulturebis farTo gamoyeneba iwvevs araproduqtiuli aorTqlebis, eroziis, sakvebi  nivTierebebis gamorecxvis da sarevelebis Semcirebas. dadebiT zegavlenas axdens sakvebi nivTierebebis balanssa da  fitosanitaruli RonisZiebebis efeqturobaze;

· msgavs Sedegebs iwvevs agreTve kulturaTa monacvleobis principis dacva (farTofoTlovanebi-wvrilfoTlovanebi, Rrmafesvianebi-horizontulfesvebianebi, saSemodgomo-sagazafxulo, gviani-adreuli) Sualeduri kulturebis gamoyenebis da Teslbrunvis saqmeSi;

· saxnavebSi samyurebis da marcvlovanebis xSiri moweva zRudavs sarevelaTa gavrcelebas. niadagis damzogveli damuSaveba aumjobesebs mis struqturas da sicocxlisunarianobas;

· detaluri meTvalyureoba sasuqebze. qmediTi zomebi maTi gamoyenebisas warmoqmnili danakargebis Sesamcireblad;

· organuli sasuqebis mcire dozebis xSiri da mizanmimarTuli gamoyeneba saWiroebisamebr mineraluri sasuqebis damatebiTi daSvebiT;

· mindvris kulturebis gamosadegi saxeobebis da jiSebis SerCeva klimatur da niadagur faqtorebTan damokidebulebaSi;

· maqsimalurad SesaZlebeli zomebis raodenobis realizacia (uwinares yovlisa, profilaqtikuri) mavneblebTan da daavadebebTan brZolaSi. maTi bunebrivi antagonistebis mxardaWera;

· naTesTa mudmivi da detaluri kontroli;

· niadagis da naTesebis Tanamdevi RonisZiebebis drouli gatareba;

· mosavlis aRebisas da Semdgomi samuSaoebis Catarebisas (wmenda, produqciis daxarisxeba, Senaxva) yuradRebis gamaxvileba.

 

5.2 Teslbrunvebi organuli miwaTmoqmedebis farglebSi

 

Oorganuli miwaTmoqmedebisTvis Teslbrunva warmoadgens kardinalur sistemur RonsiZiebas. kulturebis swori monacvleobis Sedegad SesaZloa SenarCundes da gaumjobesdes niadagis xarisxi, dastabilurdes humifikaciis da mineralizaciis procesebi, gaizardos wylis da sakvebi nivTierebebis gamoyenebis eefqturoba, moimatos niadagebSi mikroorganizmTa aqtivobam, dagrovdes azoti, daiTrgunos kulturuli mcenareebis daavadeba da mavneblebisgan dazianeba, SeizRudos konkurencia sarevelebidan, daregulirdes zrdis faqtoris zemoqmedeba, gaizardos biomravalferovneba da agroekosistemaTa stabiluroba, gaizardos warmoebis efeqturoba.

kulturaTa monacvleobis principebi:

1. kulturuli jiSebis da maTi Tanmimdevrobis SerCevisas Teslbrunvis sqemaSi unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli adgilobrivi pirobebi;

2. Casanergi Teslbrunvis sqemam unda uzrunvelyos im kulturebis monacvleoba, romlebic amdidrebs niadags sakvebi naerTebiT (naxSirbadiT wyaroebi), kulturebTan, romlebic mas aRaribebs;

3. aseTive monacvleoba unda iqnas daculi im kulturaTa Soris, romelnic aumjobeseben da auareseben niadagis fiziko-qimiur maxasiaTeblebs da stuqturas;

4. aseTive monacvleoba unda iqnes daculi im kulturebs Soris, romelTac erTi mxriv gaaCniaT specifikuri moTxovnilebebi sakveb nivTierebebze, xolo meore mxriv warmoadgenen azotdamgrovebel kulturebs (sakvebi parkosnebi);

5. gasaTvaliswinebelia hidrofitebis (tenismoyvarulTa) zegavlena niadagis wylis reJimze;

6. aseve monacvleoba unda iqnas daculi sxvadasxva siRrmis da sistemis fesvTa mqone mcenareebis SemTxvevaSi;

7. organuli nivTierebebis arasakmarisi utilizacia fesvis da miwiszeda nawilebSi anazRaurdes Sualeduri kulturebis kultivirebiT;

8. saxeobaTa raodenobis zrdis gziT (Sualeduri kulturebi, jiSTa Sereva, gafarToebuli Teslbrunva)  mTeli sistemebis universalurobis gaumjobeseba;

9. sarevelebTan Zlieri konkurenciis mqone kulturebis monacvleoba. sarevelebTan brZolisTvis sistemuri nabijebis ganxorcieleba;

10. mavnebelTa mimarT gamZle da avadmyofobamedegi saxeobebis da jiSebis SerCeva da TeslbrunvaSi didi intervalebis dacva iseT kulturebTan, romlebic aRniSnuli niSan-TvisebebiT ar gamoirCeva;

11. Teslbrunvis Sesabamisi organizebis meSveobiT mwvane mcenareuli safariT niadagis rac SeiZleba xangrZlivi uzrunvelyofa wlis ganmavlobaSi sakvebi nivTierebebis utilizaciis, sarevelebTan brZolis, aorTqlebis da eroziis Semcirebis mizniT;

12. kulturebis monacvleoba iseTi saxiT, rom mosavlis aRebis Semdeg niadagi didxans iqnas dasvenebuli da momzadebuli momdevno kulturebis miRebisTvis;

13. analogiuri saxeobebis kulturaTa xelmeore gamoyvanis SezRudva. am principis daucvelobis SemTxvevaSi, e. i. xelmeore daTesvisas da dargvisas, Tundac jiSebis, saSemodgomo da sagazafxulo formebis monacvleobis dacva mainc da erTidaigive kulturebis SemTxvevaSi SeZlebisdagvarad metad momTxovni saxeobebis Secvla naklebad momTxovni saxeobebiT.

 

Teslbrunvis sqemebis formirebisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda daeTmos Semdeg sameurneo aspeqtebs:

1. sawarmos kvebiTi balansidan gamomdinare sakuTari warmoebis uxeS da koncentrirebul sakvebze moTxovnileba;

2. moTxovnileba sakuTar naTesebze da nargaobebze;

3. sameurneo xelSekrulebebis dadeba da dagegmva gansazRvruli xarisxis savaWro produqciis gayidvis Sesaxeb;

4. kulturuli mcenareebis gamoyvanis SemzRudveli ekonomikuri, politikuri da sawarmoo aspeqtebi (mowodeba, fasebi, dotaciebi da sxv.);

5. sawarmos samSeneblo, teqnikuri da teqnologiuri aRWurva, an xelSekrulebiTi uzrunvelyofa mosavlis aRebis Semdgomi damuSavebis saqmeSi da warmoebuli produqciis da produqciis Semdgomi Senaxvis uzrunvelyofa;

6. sawarmos mwarmoebluri da profesiuli SesaZleblobebi sawarmoo produqciis struqturis mosalodneli cvlilebebis aspeqtebSi.

sasoflo-sameurneo sawarmos kulturaTa gansazRvruli struqturisas, memcenareobis da mecxoveleobis produqciis dabalansebuli warmodgenisas, uwinares yovlisa mcoxneli saqonlis dominirebisas Cveulebriv, ar aris rTuli zemoT CamoTvlili moTxovnebis Sesruleba.

kulturuli jiSebi SesaZloa daxarisxdes tipiuri maxasiaTeblebis mixedviT, rogoricaa mosavlianoba an damokidebuleba sxva kulturebTan, monawileoba TeslbrunvaSi da sxva. maTi daxarisxeba SeiZleba or ZiriTad jgufad: gamaumjobesebeli da gamauaresebeli.

 

memcenareobis kulturebis calkeuli jgufebis daxasiaTeba Teslbrunvis sqemebis Sedgenis TvalsazrisiT

 

marcvleuli kulturebi

marcvleuli kulturebi naklebad dafesvianebulia da amdenad, sakvebs da tens upiratesad niadagis zeda horizontebidan Seiwovs. maTi zrda-ganviTarebisTvis niadagSi aucilebelia mza, advilad xelmisawvdomi sakvebi nivTierebebi, upirveles yovlisa fosfori da azoti. sxva mxriv, marcvleulebi niadagSi toveben sakmao raodenobiT dabali xarisxis namkal narCenebs naxSirbadis da azotis maRali SemcvelobiT. sarevelebTan konkurentunarianoba marcvleulebSi  dabalia da damokidebulia kulturis saxeobasa da naTesis sixSireze. am mxriv yvelaze gamZlea Wvavi, cota naklebad _ saSemodgomo qeri, Svria da triTikale (xorblisa da Wvavis hibridi). metad sustia xorbali da sagazafxulo qeri. marcvleulTa naTesebSi advilad vrceldeba Wanga, veluri Svria, Cveulebrivi cocxi da sxva sarevelebi. TeslbrunvaSi marcvleulis CarTvis SemzRudvel faqtors warmoadgens misi midrekileba Reros daavadebebisaken.

marcvleuli kulturebis gamoyvanaSi warmatebebi didwilad damokidebulia winamorbedi kulturebis swor arCevanze. marcvleuli kulturebisTvis yvelaze xelsayrel winamorbedebs warmoadgens gamaumjobesebeli kulturebi. magaliTad samyurasebrni, parkosnebi, marcvlovan-parkosanTa narevebi, zeTovani da erTwliani sakvebi kulturebi. marcvleuli kulturebis CarTva TeslbrunvaSi erTmaneTis miyolebiT mxolod gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi xdeba. organul miwaToqmedebaSi msgavsi saxiT damuSaveba araumetes ori wliT zedized SesaZloa ganmeordes. aseT SemTxvevebSi aucilebelia saSemodgomo da sagazafxulo formebis monacvleoba, an meorexarisxovan marcvleul kulturad unda airCes naklebad momTxovni Wvavi da Svria. Teslbrunvis struqturis gamdidrebas xels uwyobs masSi periferiuli marcvleuli kulturebis (fetvi, sorgo, spelta, veluri Svria) da fsevdomarcvleuli kulturebis (wiwibura, amaranti) CarTvac.

Mmarcvleuli kulturebis TeslbrunvaSi CarTulobis xarisxi damokidebulia samyurasebrTa da parkosanTa wilze, garkveulwilad agreTve Zirxvenebzec. organul miwaTmoqmedebaSi es maCvenebeli ufro mcirea, vidre tradiciul miwaTmoqmedebaSi. arasasurvelia, rom misi xvedriTi wili mTel TeslbrunvaSi aRematebodes 50%-s. ufro maRali maCvenebeli auaresebs Teslbrunvis struqturas da xels uwyobs mavneblebis, daavadebebis da sarevelebis ganviTarebas.

 

Zirnayofebi

Zirnayofebi anu Zirxvenebi warmoadgens mcenareTa jgufs gaxangrZlivebuli savegetacio periodiT, sakvebi nivTierebebis neli aTvisebiTa da kaliumis moxmarebis gazrdiT. Cveulebriv maT sasuqebis didi doziT kvebaven. maTi kultivireba Cveulebriv xdeba ganierriga zolebad, raTa SesaZlebeli iyos zolebs Soris meqanikuri damuSavebis Catareba. maT axasiaTebT uaryofiTi zemoqmedeba sarevelebze, aumjobeseben niadagis aeracias, swrafad iTviseben sasuqs da swrafad anTavisufleben sakveb nivTierebebs. Tumca amavdroulad xels uwyoben humusis destruqcias.

daavadebebis da mavneblebis farTo gavrcelebis gamo (kartofilis kolorados xoWo, kartofilis nematoda, fitoftorozi) kartofilis moyvana organul miwaTmqdebaSi warmoadgens rTul, Sromatevad saqmes. es gadamwyveti faqtoria intervalis xangrZlivobis gansazRvrisas TeslbrunvaSi misi xelmeore CarTvisas.

Zirxvenebi Cveulebriv mohyavT winamorbedi gamauaresebeli kulturebis (ZiriTadad marcvleulis) Semdeg. maTi CarTva TeslbrunvaSi samyurasa da samyura-marcvlovnebis Semdeg ar moiTxovs nakelis Setanas da aZlierebs Teslbrunvis antifitopaTogenur potencials.

siminds, romelic TeslbrunvaSi CarTulia ZirnayofaTa Soris, organul miwaTmoqmedebaSi gaaCnia Tavisi specifika (meqanikuri kultivacia _ niadagis eroziis safrTxis zrda da sxv.). konversiis periodSi TeslbrunvaSi simindma rekomendebulia Secvalos samyura-marcvlovnebi an monokulturebi (magaliTad, erTwliani raigrasi).

 

samyurasebri kulturebi

samyurasebri kulturebi warmoadgens niadagSi organuli nivTierebebis ZiriTad wyaros da amavdroulad, azotis ZiriTad momwodebels nitratbaqteriebTan simbiozisa da dagrovebis gziT. samyura kulturebs gaaCnia fitosanitarul efeqti, vinaidan negatiurad zemoqmedeben zogierT paTogenebze (magaliTad, Reros daavadebebis maprovocireblebze, mindvris selis fuzariozebze, Warxlis nematodebze da sxv.). maT Rrmad SeRwevad fesvebs zedapirze amoaqvs sakvebi nivTierebebi, riTac xels uwyobs niadagis gamococxlebas, aumjobeseben mis struqturas. samyurasebr kulturebs gaaCnia rigi sxva dadebiTi Tvisebebic.

samyurasebri kulturebis wili (organul miwaTmoqmedebaSi xSirad gamoiyeneba samyura-marcvlovanTa narevi) damokidebulia mudmivi balaxsafaris (mdeloebis da saZovrebis) CarTulobis xarisxze sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebis struqturaSi. mudmivi sakvebi kulturebi da saxnavi sakvebi kulturebi urTierTSemavsebelia rogorc uSualod sakvebis, aseve adgilobrivi sasuqebis arapirdapir warmoebaSi. vinaidan konversiis dasawyisSi niadagSi aRiniSneba azotis kritikuli deficiti, sasargebloa samyura kulturebis farTobebis zrda. gansakuTrebiT es exeba ionjas, romlis naTesebi unda sWarbobdes momavali moxmarebis donesac ki. ionjis ori an samwliani nazardebi, iseve rogorc samyura-marcvlovanTa orwliani analogebi, mniSvnelovnad amcirebs sarevelebis raodenobas da amdidrebs niadags azotiT da organuli nivTierebebiT. samyurasebrni intensiurad Trgunavs velur Svriasac. organuli miwaTmoqmedebisken TandaTanobiTi gadasvlisas TeslbrunvaSi samyura kulturebis mindvrebi Cveulebriv pirvel adgils ikavebs. xolo kulturaTa rotaciis procesSi, ukve maTi Semdgomi kulturebi imyofeba ekologiuri meurneobis pirobebSi.

 

erTwliani parkosani kulturebi

parkosnebi TeslbrunvaSi Zlian mniSvnelovania ara mxolod parkosan-marcvlovani narevis (saSemodgomo Tu sagazafxulo) saxiT, aramed rogorc Sualeduri kulturebi. msxvil sawarmoebSi, sadac organul miwaTmoqmedebaze meurneobis mxolod nawilia gadasuli, amarTlebs e. w. gardamavali Teslbrunvis danergva, rodesac parkosan- marcvlovani kulturebis saSemodgomo da sagazafxulo naTesebs enacvleba mwvane sasuqebis naxnavebi. sasuqebis miRebis da sarevelebis daTrgunvis TvalsazrisiT es iZleva brwyinvale Sedegs. garda amisa, ekologiuri meurneobebisTvis didi mniSvneloba gaaCnia parkosan da parkosan-marcvlovan narevebs marcvleulSi, rac SesaniSnav sakveb bazas warmoadgens goWebisTvis, frinvelebisTvis da msxvilfexa rqosani saqonelisTvis. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac TeslbrunvaSi marcvleulze dominirebs parkosnebi (lobio, barda), rac ZiriTadad gamowveulia mesaqonleobis moTxovnilebiT (sawarmos orientireba mefrinveleobaze, an meRoreobaze), samyurasmieri humuswarmoqmnis efeqti ikargeba. amasTanave, warmoiqmneba dasarevelianebis problema (ekalRiWi), xolo parkosanTa farTobebis metismeti zrdis Sedegad warmoiqmneba niadagSi azotdeficitis problemac.

 

Sualeduri kulturebi

Sualeduri kulturebis mniSvneloba mdgomareobs savegetacio periodis efeqtur gamoyenebaSi, sakvebi nivTierebebis SeboWvasa da maT efeqtur gamoyenebaSi momdevno kulturebis mier, rac amcirebs naxnavebidan sakvebi nivTierebebis gamorecxvis saSiSroebas da aumjobesebs maT balanss. Sualeduri kulturebi ikavebs miwis zedapirs ZiriTadi kulturebis ararsebobis dros, rac amcirebs aorTqlebas da qarismier erozias. isini xels uwyobs mtacebeli organizmebis aqtivobis zrdas, zRudavs daavadebebisa da mavneblebis gavrcelebas, qmnis niadagis aqtiurobis wanamZRvrebs da astabilurebs an zrdis mis nayofierebas. Sualedur kulturebs iyeneben mwvane sasuqebad da sakvebi balansis rezervad.

TeslbrunvaSi Sualeduri kulturebis CarTvisTvis gadamwyvet faqtors warmoadgens ZiriTadi kulturebis savegetacio periodis xangrZlivoba an intervalebi maT mowevas Soris. ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT, maTi CarTuloba damokidebulia agreTve saTesle masalis xelmisawvdomobasa da Rirebulebaze da aucilebel teqnikur aRWurvaze. gamozrdis warmateba damokidebulia amindis pirobebze (naleqebi, temperatura) da niadagis Tvisebebze.

 

calkeuli kulturebis TeslbrunvebSi gamoyenebisas warmoqmnili fitosanitaruli problemebi

 

Rerovani mcenareebi

mTavar malimitirebel faqtors warmoadgens daavadeba, romelic iwvevs Reros Ziris gaSavebas (Gaeumannomyces graminis) da fesvTa lpobas (Pseudocercosporrela herpotrichoides). am daavadebebiT ZiriTadad zaraldeba saSemodgomo xorbali da saSemodgomo qeri. sagazafxulo qeris da Wvavis SemTxvevaSi avadobis Sansi saSualoa. Zalian mdgradia am avadmyofobis mimarT fetvi, ris gamoc marcvleulTa monacvleobisas igi ikavebs fitosanitarul rols. marcvleulTa monacvleobisas sxva kulturebTan erTwliani Sualedebi ar aris sakmarisi Reros lpobis gamomwvevi faqtorebis dasaTrgunad. amitomac rekomendebulia es Sualedebi iyos or- da samwliani. am mizniT yvelaze kargia samyuris orwliani da ionjas samwliani naTesebis dargva. efeqturia sxvadasxva kombinaciebis gamoyenebac, rogoricaa balaxTa narevi-rafsi, simindi-fetvi, kartofili-fetvi, kartofili-parkosnebi da sxv. efeqturia agreTve nakelis da mwvane sasuqebis rogorc cal-calke, aseve erTdrouli Setana sxvadasxva kombinaciebis saxiT.

marcvleuli kulturebis monacvleobis erTwliani wyveta gamaumjobesebeli kulturebis CarTvis gziT, rogorc wesi, amcirebs Reros Ziris gaSavebis albaTobas, vinaidan paTogens niadagSi ar SeuZliaT didi xnis ganmavlobaSi arseboba. am mizniT zemoaRweril kulturebs da kombinaciebs unda davumatoT Saqris Warxali da seli. Tu aRniSnuli paTogeni dominirebs niadagSi, maSin rekomendebulia marcvleulTa moyvanis Sewyveta aranakleb ori wliT. paTogenebis daTrgunvas xels uwyobs sarevelaTa likvidaciac. magaliTad, Cveulebrivi cocxi sakmaod xSirad Zalze inficirebulia am paTogenebiT.

imis gamo, rom myari gudafSutas Tiletia controversa qlamidosporebi, niadagis siRrmeSi sami wlis manZilze inarCunebs gaRvivebis unars, xolo niadagis zedapirze myisierad Rvivdeba, rekomendebulia xorblis monawileoba TeslbrunvebSi aranakleb 6-7 wliani periodebiT. simindis gudafSutas Ustilago maydis qlamidosporebi gaRvivebis unars xangrZlivad inarCunebs, simindis CarTva TeslbrunvebSi SeiZleba aranakleb 3 wliani, xolo Zlieri daavadebisas 6-8 wliani SualedebiT.

Teslbrunvebis sworad Sedgenili sqemebi da sxva agronomiuli RonisZiebebi axdens dadebiT fitosanitarul zemoqmedebas foTlovani kulturebis zrda-ganviTarebaze. puris bzuala xoWos (Zabrus gibbus) sawinaaRmdegod, romlis matlebi aRmonacenTa foTlebs azianeben da aseve sxvadasxva xoWoebis sawinaaRmdegod, romlebic zafxulobiT, rZiani simwifis fazaSi marcvleuliT da marcvlovnebiT ikvebebian, sakmaod efeqturia marcvleulTa monacvleoba parkosnebTan da WarxalTan. imis gamo, rom niadagis damuSavebis nebismieri meTodi amcirebs mavTula Wiebis (tkacuna xoWoebis matlebis) raodenobas, damatebiT sabrZolvelad rekomendebulia Zirxvenebi da parkosnebi. niadagis minimaluri damuSavebisas ki rogorc matlebis, aseve zrdasruli individebis raodenoba izrdeba. aseve araa rekomendebuli fetvis yovelwliuri Tesva, radgan fetvi xels uwyobs niadagSi fetvis nematodis (Heterodera avenae) gavrcelebas.

 

foTlovani mcenareebi

Warxali SeuTavsebadia sakuTar TavTan, amitomac erTi da imave farTobebze misi Tesva rekomendebulia aranakleb oTxwliani SualedebiT. misTvis Sesaferis momdevno kulturas warmoadgens sagazafxulo qeri, radganac igi (miuxedvad imisa, rom miekuTvneba e. w. ,,neitralur” mcenareebs) amcirebs Warxlis nematodaTa warmoqmnas. Teslbrunvebi, iseve rogorc sxva RonisZiebebi saWiroa Sefasdes kompleqsurad (magaliTad, Tanmxlebi sarevela mcenareebis warmoqmnasTan erTad). ionja, magaliTad, ar aris xelsayreli winamorbed kulturad Saqris WarxlisTvis, sxva mxriv ki igi SesaniSnavad anadgurebs Warxlis nematodebs. Tu igi dasarevelianebulia, rac Cveulebriv xdeba misi gadaxvnisas mesame an meoTxe wels, maSin misi medegoba Warxlis nematodis mimarT ecema. zogjer Tavad Saqris Warxlis naTesebs intensiurad aqvT moreuli iseTi sarevelebi, rogoricaa: Sinapis arvensis, Thlapsi arvense, Chenopodium albumda Aamranthus retroflexus.

vinaidan Plasmodiophora brassicae-s sporebi inarCunebs sicocxlisunarianobas 4-6 wlis ganmavlobaSi, aucilebelia davicvaT Sesabamisi Sualedebi jvaryvavilovanTa Tesvisas. aseve unda moxdes im jvaryvavilovani sarevelebis ganadgureba, romelnic am sokos matarebelni arian (magaliTad mindvris mdogvi da sxv.).

kartofilis kibos (Synchytrium endobioticum) matareblebi kartofilSi SeiZleba moxvdnen Solanaceae ojaxis sarevelebidan. samyuras kibos winaaRmdeg, romelic xSirad samyuras naTesebis masobriv Wknoba-gaxmobas iwvevs, saWiroa TeslbrunvaSi sakmarisad xangrZlivi, rogorc minimum 6-wliani Sualedebis dacva. TviTon kibos sporebi aqtiurobas oTxidan Svid wlamde inarCunebs. mSrali lpobis (fomozis) maprovocirebeli soko Phoma lingam sicocxlisunarianobas oTxi wlis manZilze inarCunebs. amitomac, zogadad jvaryvavilovani mcenareebis CarTva TeslbrunvebSi rekomendebulia aranakleb samwliani SualedebiT.

selis fuzariozebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi (soko Fusarium lini) saWiroa SenarCundes 6-7-wliani Sualedebi selis kulturisTvis erTsa da imave adgilze. Sesaferis winamorbed kulturas misTvis warmoadgens samyura-marcvlovanTa narevi. aRniSnuli Sualedebi saWiroa agreTve selis fesvebis dasacavad (sokoebi Phytium sp., Asterocusttis radicis) da selis rizoqtoniozis winaaRmdeg (Rizoctonia salani, Thielaviopsis sp.).

 

Teslbrunvis dagegmareba:

1. sakvebi kulturebis moTxovnilebis gansazRvris da savaWro urTierTobebis perspeqtivis safuZvelze saWiroa dadgindes calkeuli kulturebis xvedriTi wili procentebSi. aqedan gamomdinare, unda gadawydes rotaciis periodis da nakveTTa raodenobis sakiTxi;

2. saWiroa gamoiyos erTi da imave fizikur-qimiuri maxasiaTeblebis mqone niadagiani ubnebi. amasTan araa aucilebeli isini erT mTlian nakveTs Seadgendes.

3. kulturaTa, an kulturaTa jgufebis Tanmimdevroba dgindeba Semdegi moTxovnilebebis gaTvaliswinebiT:

· gaizardos parkosanTa xvedriTi wili TeslbrunvaSi 25-33%-mde (maT Soris samyura-marcvlovnebis);

· sarevelebis daTrgunvis mizniT samyurasebri kulturebis konversiis dawyeba;

· yvela SesaZleblobis gamoyeneba TeslbrunvaSi Sualeduri kulturebis CasarTavad (raTa niadagi ar darCes moSiSvlebuli);

· Zirxvenebis gamoyeneba organuli nivTierebis swrafad dasaSlelad da sarevelaTa dasaTrgunad;

· nelamzardi kulturebisTvis sarevelamedegi saxeobebis gamoyeneba winamorbed kulturebad;

· Rrma da horizontalurad dafesvianebuli, saSemodgomo da sagazafxulo, farTo da viwrofoTliani kulturebis monacvleoba.

4. swrafi (erTwliani) gadasvla eklogiur meurneobaze amartivebs da aCqarebs konversias. Tumca es iwvevs konversiis daZabulobis matebas da ramdenadme amcirebs mosavals. agreTve amcirebs winamorbedi kulturebis efeqturobas.

5. swrafi konversiis saWiroebisas, SesaZloa SemovitanoT Sualeduri Teslbrunva. Kkomerciuli mogebis Semcirebis safuZvelze SeiZleba parkosanTa maRali wilis (50%) uzrunvelyofa (saSemodgomo da sagazafxulo samyuras safuZvelze), mwvane sakvebisTvis, mwvane sasuqebisTvis, konservirebisTvis da TeslisTvis;

6. TeslbrunvebSi parkosnebis 25-33% arsebobisas saWiroa konversiis gayofa oTxwlian an samwlian periodze da TandaTanobiTi gadasvla kulturaTa dagegmil Tanmimdevrul monacvleobaze.

სტატიის ავტორი a, 2019-12-27