nawyveti biologiis doqtor, nodar mindiaSvilis wignidan 
“organuli soflis meurneoba”

 

 

 

 

mcenareTa kveba,  gamokveba sasuqebiT




 

7.1. mcenareTa kvebis Teoria da specifika organul miwaTmoqmedebaSi

mcenareTa kveba fiziologiuri procesia, romelic mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli fotosinTezTan da bunebaSi nivTierebaTa wrebrunvasTan. mcenareebisa da zogierTi umdablesi organizmebis, magaliTad, lurj-mwvane baqteriebis garda, organizmebis mTeli kvebiTi jaWvi, maT Soris adamiani, agreTve edafoni (niadagis organizmTa erToblioba), damokidebulni arian organul kvebaze, romlis pirvelad wyaros warmoadgenen mcenareebi.

mcenareebi iReben azots niadagidan, romelSic is xvdeba haeridan, umTavreswilad biologiuri procesebis meSveobiT. haeris azotis aTviseba SeuZliaT mxolod zogierT mikroorganizmebs _ baqteriebs, romlebic niadagSi binadroben Tavisuflad Tu simbiozSi sxva organizmebTan, aqtinomicetebsa da lurj-mwvane baqteriebs. simbiozuri rizogenuli baqteriebi da aqtinomicetebi kvebas iReben TavianTi maspinZeli mcenarisagan. Tavisuflad mobinadre organizmebs, avtotrofuli lurj-mwvane baqteriebis garda, kvebisaTvis sWirdebaT organuli substrati _ xsnadi humusi, anu isev mcenareTa fotosinTezis pirveladi produqti. sakvebi parkosani mcenareebis simbiozs gorglovan baqteriebTan aqvs principuli mniSvneloba, gansakuTrebiT, organuli miwaTmoqmedebisaTvis.

organul miwaTmoqmedebaSi ar daiSveba advilad xsnadi sinTetikuri azotovani sasuqebis, anu gvarjilebis gamoyeneba (maT Soris Ciles gvarjilisac, misi bunebrivi warmomavlobis miuxedavad), amoniumis sulfatisa da Sardovanas gamoyenebac ki, romelic, TumcaRa aris organuli naerTi, magram sasuqis saxiT sinTetikurad gamomuSavdeba samrewvelo masStabebiT.

sinTetikuri azotovani sasuqebis gamoyenebaze organuli miwaTmoqmedebis uaris Tqmis mizezebi:

· niadagur xsnarebSi xelovnuri uwonasworobisa da calmxrivi kvebis (sasuqebiT Warbad kvebis) Tavidan acileba;

· mavneblebis gamoCenis Tavidan acileba, romlebsac izidavT azotis maRali koncntracia mcenaris qsovilebSi;

· niadagis cxovelqmedebaze uaryofiTi zemoqmedebis (ganadgurebis) Tavidan acileba;

· azotovani sasuqebis warmoebaze energiis zedmeti xarjvis Tavidan acileba;

· azotis racionalurad gamoyenebis survili (sakveb parkosanTa moyvana da gonivruli mopyroba organul masasTan), rac rgebs niadagis saerTo nayofierebas.

mcenareTa kvebis sxvadasxva gageba ekologiur da tradiciul miwaTmoqmedebaSi:

· kulturuli mcenareebi uzrunvelyofilia sakvebi nivTierebebiT arapirdapir, niadag-mcenaris sistemis meSveobiT, romelSic sakvanZo rols TamaSobs niadagis cxovreba, romelic pasuxs agebs daSla-cvlis procesebze;

· tradiciuli midgoma, romelic gamodis niadagSi mcenareTa mier asaTvisebeli sakvebi nivTierebebis Setanis aucileblobidan, organul miwaTmoqmedebaSi ar moqmedebs. am midgomaSi ar gamoiyeneba is faqti, rom niadagi aris cocxali, produqtiuli ekosistema;

· niadagis mikroorganizmebs SeuZliaT sakvebi nivTierebebis amoReba niadagis mineraluri komponentebidan, haeridan (azoti) da organuli narCenebidan, SemdgomSi ki maTi xelmisawvdomad gaxdoma mcenareebisaTvis.

 

7.2. adgilobrivi sasuqebi da maTi movla

organuli sasuqebisa da namkali narCenebis swor sameurneo movlas organul miwaTmoqmedebaSi didi mniSvneloba aqvs. biologiuri procesebis wyalobiT adgilobrivi sasuqebi asrulebs elementTa wrebrunvas da maT abrunebs niadagSi mcenareTa mier Semdgomi gamoyenebisaTvis.

 

7.2.1. nakeli

nakeli aris soflis meurneobaSi yvelaze farTod gamoyenebuli organuli sasuqi.

axoris nakelis damuSavebis SesaZlo meTodebi da misi Senaxva:

1. civi meTodi: nakeli inaxeba blokebad, romlebic itkepneba organul nivTierebaTa daSlis siCqaris Sesamcireblad. Senaxvis temperatura ar aRemateba 30°C-s. garda amisa, aseTi Senaxvisas mcirdeba danakargebi amiakis gaJonvisagan, anaerobul pirobebSi ispoba Teslis gaRivebadoba da nadgurdeba paTogenuri organizmebi. nakelma amgvari sistemidan SeiZleba miayenos ziani, radganac anaerobul pirobebSi warmoqmnili naerTebi uaryofiT gavlenas axdens fesvebis zrdasa da mikrobiologiur procesebze niadagSi.

2. cxeli meTodi: xdeba kontrolirebadi aerobuli da anaerobuli procesebis kombinireba. aerobul fazaSi xdeba temperaturis momateba TiTqmis 50°C-mde, Semdeg (2-4 dReSi) masala itkepneba masze axali axoris nakelis Semdegi fenis dadebiT. temperaturis mateba nakelSi iwvevs avtosterilizaciur procesebs. civi meTodiT Senaxul nakelTan SedarebiT, organulad SeboWili azotis xvedriTi wona da xelmisawvdomi kaliumis Semcveloba am SemTxvevaSi gazrdilia.

3. fermentacia bioairis warmoebiT _ Senaxvis sawyisi faza msgavsia cxeli meTodisa, Tumca masala CaitvirTeba specialur saduRar rofebSi. 50°C-mde TviTgacxelebis Semdeg rofi hermetulad ixureba datkepnisa da masalis Semdegi fenis damatebis gareSe. amis Semdeg amoitumbeba bioairi, romelic Sedgeba ZiriTadad meTanisa da naxSirorJangis narevisagan. SeiZleba misi gamoyeneba sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebaSi, magaliTad, gasaTbobad an wylis gasacxeleblad.

4. kompostis miRebis procesSi, romlis drosac xdeba aerobuli daSla, iqmneba bunebriv ekosistemebTan miaxloebuli pirobebi. damdgari komposturi masalis Setanisas niadagSi mcirdeba wonasworobis darRveva.

 

7.3. kompostebi da maTi warmoeba

gonivruli da mzrunveli mopyroba sakveb nivTierebebTan ekologiur sistemaSi warmoadgens warmatebuli meurneobis safuZvels organul miwaTmoqmedebaSi. organuli masis daSlis ZiriTadi principebia:

· anaerobuli _ nakelis momwifeba, dasiloseba, nivTierebaTa bioqimiuri cvlilebebi xdeba uJangbadod;

· aerobuli _ mineralizacia Jangbadis garemoSi, Sedgeba ori fazisagan: 1. danaxSireba _ naxSirbadis naerTTa Jangva; 2. nitrifikacia nitritul nivTierebaTa JangviT.

kompostireba aris sxvadasxvagvarovani organuli masis daSlis pirvandeli bunebrivi procesi, romelic mimdinareobs aerobul pirobebSi.

teqnologia

kompostebi xasiaTdeba rogorc organul nivTierebaTa da niadagis narevi, gamococxlebuli sasargeblo mikrofloriT, romelSic xdeboda an xdeba humuswarmomqmneli procesebi. kompostirebis nedleuli SeiZleba iyos soflis meurneobis yvela organuli naSTi (mcenareTa narCenebi _ sarevelebi, Cala, xaSxaSis carieli kolofebi, kartofilis foCi, bze, gafuWebuli furaJi, xis foTlebi, Zveli mouTibavi mdelos balaxi, kordi da a.S.) da merqani (naxerxi, nafotebi, qerqi da a.S.). maT emateba araorganuli nivTierebebi (grunti, fskeris lami guburebidan, wyali da a.S.), cocxali mikroorganizmebis Semcveli substratebi (nakeli, nakelis masa da a.S.).

kompostirebis ZiriTadi pirobebia:

· sakveb nivTierebaTa proporcia sakomposte masaSi C : N = 1 : 30;

· optimaluri tenianoba;

· miwis 10% xvedriTi wona;

· Cadebis erTgvarovneba _ nedleulis amoreva da kompostirebis procesis damoukidebeli dawyeba;

· CanadebSi aerobuli pirobebis dacva gadabrunebis gziT kompostirebis swori procesis SesanarCuneblad;

· pirvel kviras SenarCundes temperatura araumetes 65°C ganiaveba-gadabrunebis meSveobiT;

· procesis dawyebidan 21-e dRemde unda SenarCundes 50°C-ze maRali temperatura Canadebis higienurobisaTvis;

· kompostirebis procesis dasruleba 6-8 kviraSi, Semdeg unda Catardes momwifebis kontroli.

stacionaruli sakomposte ormo

· gamagrebuli zedapiri mcire daxrilobiT wvimis wylis sagrovebel rezervuarSi;

· Canadebebi unda ganlagebuli iyos imgvarad, rom ar daakavos wvimis wyali _ horizontalis perpendikularulad.

savele sakomposte ormo _ kompostis erTjeradi Canadebi (nakveTis kideze) uSualod organuli masis miRebis adgilas, mowyobili imgvarad, rom Tavidan aviciloT gruntis wylebis dabinZureba. Canadebi ferdobze ganlagebuli unda iyos ise, rom ar Seakavos wvimis wyali da rom mdebareobdes myari zedapiris, magaliTad, gzis gverdiT, rac mogvcems avdarSic kompostis gadabrunebis saSualebas. kargia Canadebis ganTavseba xis CrdilSi. im regionebSi, sadac naleqebis wliuri norma 500 mm-ze metia, Canadebs Tavze unda daefaros.

kompostirebis procesis swori mimdinareobis kontroli

· dakvirveba tenianobaze _ SexebiT anda fizikuri analizis meSveobiT;

· temperaturis gazomva _ pirveli 10 dRis ganmavlobaSi unda Catardes yoveldRiurad. Semdegi 11 dRis ganmavlobaSi gazomvebi unda Catardes dRegamoSvebiT, xolo kompostirebis procesis dasrulebamde darCenil periodSi _ kviraSi erTxel.

kompostis Setana

komposti Seitaneba nakveTze organuli sasuqebis mfantavis meSveobiT. is warmoadgens ara mxolod mcenareebisaTvis sakveb nivTierebaTa wyaros, aramed Seicavs didi raodenobiT mikroorganizmebs, rac metad mniSvnelovania niadaguri garemosaTvis. komposti ar unda Caifarcxos Rrmad.

 

7.4. adgilobrivi sasuqebis gamoyenebis xerxebi

nakeli

nakelis dayra xdeba civ, notio da uqaro amindSi. zafxulobiT nawveralze Setanisas nakels yrian SeZlebisdagvarad dRis bolos da maSinve Cafarcxaven. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu nakveTze ar mohyavT saSemodgomo anda mwvane sasuqisaTvis gankuTvnili kulturebi, nakeli gamoiyeneba Semodgomis periodSi Cveulebriv niadagis ZiriTadi sazamTro damuSavebis win. am zomebiT nakelis daSla da sakveb nivTierebaTa mineralizacia gadaideba Semdegi wlis vegetaciur periodamde.

 

Cala

marcvlovan kulturaTa Cala xasiaTdeba naxSirbadis maRali SemcvelobiT azotTan mimarTebaSi (C : N = 60-90 : 1). es proporcia unda gaumjobesdes nakelis masis damatebiT, SefardebiT 10 kg 1 t Calaze. niadagSi Cafarcxvis win Cala unda dailewos da Tanabrad mimoifantos, sasurvelia kulturis aRebis dros (mowyobiloba mosavlis amReb salewze). Calis gamoyenebisas nakelis masasTan, xolo saWiroebisas mwvane sasuqTan erTad misi efeqtianoba xarisxiani nakelis efeqtianobis identuria.

 

kompostebi

komposti aris universalurad gamosayenebeli sasuqi, azotis danakargebis riskis gareSe. is unda gamoiyenebodes upiratesad metad msubuq niadagebze. kompostis gamoyenebisas naTesebis sakvebad vegetaciis periodSi rekomendebulia misi msubuqi Cafarcxva niadagSi, kerZod gamargvlisas anda gafarcxvisas wneliani safarcxebiT. komposti idealuri sasuqia, Tumca misi warmoeba dakavSirebulia did xarjebTan, moiTxovs warmoebis teqnologiis codnasa da dacvas.

 

7.5. mwvane sasuqebi

mwvane sasuqebs ukavia mniSvnelovani adgili organuli miwaTmoqmedebis sistemaSi. mwvane sasuqebis warmoeba aris kulturebis ganzrax moyvana maTi Semdgomi niadagSi Casafarcxad organuli sasuqis saxiT. kulturaTa moyvana mwvane sasuqebisaTvis xels uwyobs:

· niadagSi swrafad daSladi organuli nivTierebebis Semcvelobis gazrdas;

· haeris azotis fiqsaciis donis momatebas (sakvebi samyurebisa da parkosani kulturebis gamoyenebisas);

· edafonis aqtivobis donis zrdas;

· Semdgomi kulturebis kvebis gaumjobesebas;

· niadagSi humusis Semcvelobis gazrdas;

· niadagis fizikuri da qimiuri Tvisebebis gaumjobesebas;

· niadagis eroziis Semcirebas;

· sakveb nivTierebaTa (pirvel rigSi azotis) danakargebis Semcirebas;

· sarevelebis daregulirebis gaumjobesebas;

· daavadebebisa da mavneblebis gamoCenis SezRudvas _ winamorbedi kulturis xarisxis gaumjobesebas (fitosanitaruli efeqti);

· sakvebad gamoyeneba (saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi).

 

mwvane sasuqebis gamoyenebis meTodebi

mwvane sasuqebi rogorc ZiriTadi kultura

Sualeduri kulturebi

miTesva

mwvane sasuqisaTvis gankuTvnili kulturis Tesva ZiriTadTan erTad. xelsayrelia Tavisi dabali xarjebis gamo.

samkali Sualeduri kulturebi

mwvane sasuqisaTvis gankuTvnili kulturis Tesva maSinve ZiriTadi kulturis mosavlis aRebis Semdeg. am dros sakmaod efeqtianad nadgurdeba sarevelebi.

 

mwvane sasuqebis gamoyenebis pirobebi

mwvane sasuqisaTvis gankuTvnili kulturebi warmatebuli moyvanisaTvis saWiroa, rom ZiriTadi kulturebis Tesva xdebodes aranakleb 45-60 dRisa maTi daTesvidan da rom niadagis tenianoba, agreTve naleqebis raodenoba, sakmarisi iyos mcenareTa amosvla-zrdisaTvis. ufro mokle periodisas ZiriTadi kulturebis daTesvamde anda tenis naklebobisas kulturebis moyvana mwvanme sasuqebisaTvis azrs kargavs, vinaidan mosuli biomasa iqneba arasakmarisi da Cndeba sarevelebis modebis saSiSroeba.

Tu niadagSi mwvane sasuqis Cafarcxvas mimdinare wels mohyveba Semdgomi kulturis naTesis Cadeba, maSin Casafarcxi biomasis moculoba unda iyos SedarebiT mcire. didi raodenobiT mwvane sasuqma SeiZleba gamoiwvios Semdgomi kulturis uTanabro aRmocena biomasis daSlis Sualeduri produqtebis fitotoqsikurobis, wylisaTvis konkurentuli brZolisa da niadagTan Teslis kontaqtis gauaresebis gamo.

 

7.6. mineraluri sasuqebis gamoyeneba

mcenareTa kveba organuli miwaTmoqmedebis farglebSi emyareba sakveb nivTierebaTa wrebrunvas niadags, edafonsa da mcenareebs Soris. wrebrunvaSi danakargebis gamo saWiroa sakveb nivTierebaTa Sevseba mineraluri sasuqebis saxiT.

azoti (N)

azotis balansis uzrunvelyofa xdeba haeris molekuluri azotis simbiozuri da arasimbiozuri fiqsaciis gziT. TeslbrunvaSi unda CairTos sakvebi samyura, parkosnebi, SevitanoT sakvebi samyurebi mudmiv balaxis safarSi.

fosfori (P)

fosforis wyarod gamoiyeneba dafquli fosfatebi (Cveulebriv granulirebuli) da TomasSlaki (fosfatSlaki). fosforovani sasuqebi umjobesia Caifarcxos niadagSi organul sasuqebTan erTad, agreTve Caimatos nakelisa da kompostis CanadebebSi.

kaliumi (K)

kaliumis wyaros warmoadgens misi bunebrivi marilebi _ qloridebi, sulfatebi da maTi narevebi (silvinitebi, kliniti, karnaliti, polihaliti). kaliumis sasuqebis gamoyenebisas gasaTvaliswinebelia niadagSi kaliumisa da magniumis Semcvelobis Sefardeba, rac did rols TamaSobs cxovelTa kvebaSi.

magniumi (Mg)

niadagis sasurveli reaqciis misaRebad iyeneben magniums dolomituri kirqvis (dolomitis) saxiT.

kalciumi (Ca) da niadagis reaqcia (pH)

kalciumi Seitaneba niadagSi xelsayreli niadagis reaqciis misaRebad. am dros gamoiyeneba dafquli kirqvebi an dolomituri kirqvebi (magniumis Setanis aucileblobisas).

 

7.7. sakveb nivTierebaTa balansi

sakveb nivTierebaTa balansi mTlianobaSi SeiZleba ganisazRvros maTi resursebisa da moxmarebis donis SedarebiT. mindorSi sakveb nivTierebaTa balansze miwaTmoqmeds SeuZlia gavlena moaxdinos mosavlis aRebis, sasuqebis Setanisa da niadagis damuSavebis gziT. sasurveli ar aris sakveb nivTierebaTa rogorc xangrZlivi dadebiTi balansi (siWarbe), ise uaryofiTi balansi (nakleboba).

ra monacemebi unda CairTos balansSi:

· qanebisa da mineralebis gamofitvis Sedegad gamoTavisuflebuli sakvebi nivTierebebi.

· atmosferodan miRebuli sakvebi nivTierebebi.

· mosavlis aRebis Semdeg darCenili naSTebis daSlisas gamoyofili sakvebi nivTierebebi.

· niadagSi organuli sasuqebidan moxvedrili sakvebi nivTierebebi.

aseve gasaTvaliswinebelia sakveb nivTierebaTa klebis faqtorebi:

· sakveb nivTierebaTa gasvla mosavlis aRebisas.

· sakveb nivTierebaTa amorecxva.

es masalebi sakmarisad unda CaiTvalos calkeul nakveTebze yovelwliuri balansebis Sesadgenad. grZelvadiani mdgradobis TvalsazrisiT gasaTvaliswinebelia xangrZlivi periodis rigi monacemebi da Sedegebi unda Sejerdes niadagis analizebTan, romlebiTac kontroldeba sakveb da organul nivTierebaTa done. aucilebeli Semadgeneli nawilia am dros humusis xarisxis kontroli.

სტატიის ავტორი a, 2019-12-27